Health, Diseases, Medicine

Difference Between Hemophilia A and B and C

Hemophilia is a class that is a rare form of a bleeding disorder that is distinguished by the inability of the human body to make blood clots properly. Within its variants, Hemophilia A, Hemophilia B, and Hemophilia C are the most frequent.

Although they share similar symptoms they differ in the sense of the deficiency of clotting factors (VIII IX, IX,) and the severity of symptoms. Knowing the difference is essential to ensure a precise diagnosis, individualized treatments, and a better quality of life for those suffering from these ailments.

Hemophilia A

Hemophilia A (HBA) is an X-linked genetic bleeding disorder that results in blood clotting disorders and irregular bleeding patterns. Hemophilia A is caused by either deficient levels or the absence of the factor VIII protein involved in creating blood clots, so more males suffer than females from Hemophilia A.

Signs and symptoms associated with Hemophilia A can vary in intensity depending upon its severity; they typically involve long-term bleeding following injuries, surgeries, or dental work as well as sudden muscle and joint inflammation that leads to sudden bouts of bleeding. Patients diagnosed with this disorder might also find themselves more prone to excessive bleeding than normal and frequently develop deep bruises or hematomas.

Hemophilia A
Figure 01: Hemophilia A

Diagnostic of Hemophilia It often requires a physical exam, medical history review, and blood testing in order to ascertain which factors lead to blood clotting. Genetic tests may also be conducted either to verify a diagnosis or establish carrier status.

Hemophilia A is treated by administering intravenous infusions of concentrated clotting factors to replace what’s missing and manage bleeding episodes or as a prophylactic therapy to avoid them altogether. Physical therapy or pain management techniques may be utilized as well to address muscle and joint injuries caused by episodes.

Hemophilia A is the most frequent form of Hemophilia and affects one out of every 5,000 to 10,000 males; unfortunately, there is no known cure; however, when treated and managed appropriately those living with Hemophilia A can lead relatively normal lives.

Hemophilia B

Hemophilia B is a genetic bleeding disorder affecting blood clotting. This condition results from either insufficient amounts or no presence of Clotting Factor IX protein that aids blood clot formation; commonly referred to as Christmas Disease in recognition of the first patient who was ever diagnosed.

Hemophilia B is also an X-linked recessive condition, meaning it affects more males than females. Like Hemophilia A, symptoms for Hemophilia B include prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgery as well as spontaneous joint and muscle bleeding; occasional spontaneous bouts may even develop spontaneously! In addition, those living with Hemophilia B can also easily bruise as well as develop deep bruises (hematomas or deep bruises).

Hemophilia B
Figure 02: Hemophilia B

Hemophilia B can be diagnosed similarly to Hemophilia A; diagnosis requires a physical exam, medical history review, and blood testing of clotting factors; genetic testing can also be utilized as part of diagnosis or carrier status determination.

Treatment for Hemophilia B involves administering intravenous infusions of clotting factor concentrate to replace missing clotting factors and control bleeding episodes or as prophylactic measures against future bleeding events. Physical therapy or pain management may be utilized as well to address joint and muscle damage caused by bleeding episodes.

Hemophilia B is less frequent than Hemophilia A and typically affects one out of 25,000 to 30,000 males. While no cure exists, with proper management people with Hemophilia B can live relatively normal lives.

Hemophilia C

Hemophilia C is an uncommon bleeding disorder affecting blood clotting, caused by deficiency or absence of Clotting Factor XI – an essential protein required to form blood clots – unlike Hemophilia A and B which are autosomal recessive disorders and thus affect only males equally.

Hemophilia C
Figure 03: Hemophilia C

Hemophilia C symptoms vary in intensity but typically include mild to moderate bleeding from injuries or surgeries as well as spontaneous joint and muscle bleeding. People living with Hemophilia C often bruise easily and develop deep bruises; women may even experience heavy menstrual periods or postpartum hemorrhaging as a side effect of having this genetic disease.

Diagnosing Hemophilia C typically involves conducting a physical exam and reviewing one’s medical history, followed by blood tests measuring clotting factors and genetic testing to confirm or rule out carrier status.

Hemophilia C treatments are similar to Hemophilia A and B; intravenous infusion of clotting factor concentrate is used to replace missing clotting factors as needed or prophylactically to avoid bleeding episodes, and physical therapy and pain management may be utilized during episodes to manage joint and muscle damage caused by bleeding episodes.

Hemophilia C
Figure 04: Hemophilia C Treatment

Comparison chart of between Hemophilia A and B and C

Here’s a key comparison chart between Hemophilia A, B, and C:

Characteristic Hemophilia A Hemophilia B Hemophilia C
Deficient Clotting Factor Factor VIII Factor IX Factor XI
Genetic Basis X-linked recessive inheritance X-linked recessive inheritance Autosomal recessive inheritance
Prevalence Most common (about 80-85% of cases) Less common (about 15% of cases) Rare (less than 1% of cases)
Frequency of Bleeding Frequent and severe bleeding episodes Varies in severity, generally less severe Milder bleeding, often underreported
Symptoms Joint and muscle bleeds are common Joint and muscle bleeds similar to A Milder, less frequent bleeds
Diagnosis Based on clotting factor assays Based on clotting factor assays Based on clotting factor assays
Treatment Replacement therapy with Factor VIII Replacement therapy with Factor IX Desmopressin, plasma infusions
Emerging Therapies Gene therapy developments ongoing Gene therapy developments ongoing Research ongoing for new treatments
Complications Joint damage and inhibitors may develop Joint damage and inhibitors may develop Less severe joint complications

Similarities of Hemophilia A, B, and C

Here are a few similarities between Hemophilia A, B, and C:

  1. Three types of hemophilia have the possibility of bleeding due to deficiency in certain blood clotting elements (VIII in Hemophilia A IX to treat Hemophilia B and XI in Hemophilia C).
  2. All of them are genetic disorders that can be inherited and inherited, with Hemophilia A as well as B being both X-linked recessive conditions and Hemophilia C is an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
  3. Individuals with any type of hemophilia are susceptible to suffering from bleeding episodes that may occur at any time, either by accident or surgery.
  4. Diagnosis for all forms of HTML0 involves tests in the laboratory to measure the concentrations of specific clotting factors present in the blood, in addition to an examination of symptoms and the history of family members.
  5. Current treatment strategies for all types typically involve substitute therapies that use insufficient hemoglobin. However, the exact replacement of the factor is different according to the type of hemophilia.
  6. Joint damage caused by the recurrent flow of blood to joints is a common condition that affects all types of hemophilia. This can impact how well life goes for patients.

What is the best test to distinguish hemophilia A from B or C?

The best test to distinguish between Hemophilia A, B, or C involves measuring the levels of specific clotting factors in the blood:

Hemophilia A: Diagnosis relies on measuring Factor VIII levels in the blood. Lower levels of Factor VIII indicate Hemophilia A.

Hemophilia B: Diagnosis involves assessing Factor IX levels in the blood. Reduced levels of Factor IX indicate Hemophilia B.

Hemophilia C: Diagnosis includes measuring Factor XI levels in the blood. Reduced levels of Factor XI indicate Hemophilia C.

Measuring the respective deficient clotting factor in the blood helps distinguish between Hemophilia A, B, or C based on the specific factor deficiency observed.

What is the cause of hemophilia ABC?

  • Hemophilia A, The cause is a mutation in the Factor VIII gene located on the X Chromosome.
  • Hemophilia B, Is caused by mutations in the Factor IX gene, also found on the X Chromosome.
  • Hemophilia C, It is caused by changes in the factor XI gene, which is located in the autosome (non-sex chromosome).

Can a girl have hemophilia?

Hemophilia can affect women, too. Females also can suffer from hemophilia but it’s more rare. If a female suffers from hemophilia, both of the X chromosomes are affected, or one is affected while the other is absent or not functioning. For these women, the bleeding symptoms may appear similar to men suffering from hemophilia.

Which one is more severe hemophilia A, B, or c?

Hemophilia A is usually thought to be more serious as compared to Hemophilia B or C. The distinction comes in large part due to the frequency and severity of bleeding episodes that are a result of the absence of Factor VIII, the clotting factor that is involved within Hemophilia A.

Patients suffering from Hemophilia A are more likely to experience frequent and extensive bleeding, mainly into muscles and joints which can increase the chance of developing long-term complications such as joint injury.

Hemophilia B is due to factor IX deficiency and may vary in its severity, but it typically results in less severe signs and less frequent bleeding in comparison with Hemophilia A.

Hemophilia C is a condition that results from Factor XI deficiency and is typically milder than Hemophilia A or B which is characterized by smaller and less frequent bleeding episodes. It is often seen as a milder version of the disorder that has fewer complications.

At what age is hemophilia diagnosed?

Hemophilia is typically diagnosed early in childhood, usually prior to the age of two when symptoms begin to manifest at birth or in the early years of infanthood. However, the exact date of diagnosis can differ.

In certain instances, particularly those with milder symptoms, the signs may not be evident until later in the adolescent or early childhood. If there is an ancestor with hemophilia or if there are any concerns caused by prolonged bleeding after the procedure, injury, or circumcision surgical procedures, diagnostic tests could be carried out shortly after the birth.

It is essential to diagnose the problem promptly and start the appropriate treatment and preventive measures to reduce bleeding episodes and the possibility of complications for those affected.

Can a hemophiliac have a baby?

Yes, people who have hemophilia may be able to have children. Both females and males with the hemophilia gene are able to conceive. But, it’s important to look at different genetic traits. Hemophilia-suffering males pass through the X-chromosome daughters, thereby making them carriers.

On the other hand, sons inherit the Y genome and are not able to inherit hemophilia from their parents. Female carriers have a greater chance of passing the hemophilia gene to their children, regardless of whether they are female or male.

Genetic counseling is typically advised for couples whose member has hemophilia. This will help them know the risks and alternatives that can be used to control the genetic predisposition that they carry in their children, which includes prenatal tests and assisted reproductive methods to limit the possibility of passing the disease on.

If you are able to plan your family properly and have medical advice, people with hemophilia can make informed family planning choices.

Does hemophilia increase PT or PTT?

Hemophilia generally is a factor that affects the partial thromboplastin times (PTT) in contrast to the prothrombin times (PT). PTT can be affected more since it measures the underlying path of the clotting cascade that is, in which factors VIII (Hemophilia A) IX (Hemophilia B) as well and XI (Hemophilia C) have a significant role to play.

Thus, people with Hemophilia generally have a longer PTT because of the deficiencies in these clotting elements. However, the prothrombin time (PT) that evaluates the extrinsic clotting pathway that involves factors II, I VII, V, and X, usually falls in the range of normal for those with hemophilia, unless issues or deficiencies are present.


Hemophilia is a primary issue with the clotting process intrinsically and can cause an extended partial thromboplastin duration (PTT) due to deficiency in the clotting factors VIII (Hemophilia A) IX (Hemophilia B) and XI (Hemophilia C).

The prothrombin duration (PT) is a measure of the extrinsic clotting pathway, usually within normal limits in people suffering from hemophilia, in the absence of any other clotting issues.